"A Brief Doctrinal Statement" uses a trinitarian format, or God revealed as Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, to emphasize from a biblical perspective what is important to Christian faith and life.

A Brief Doctrinal Statement.pdf A Brief Doctrinal Statement.pdf
Size : 43.467 Kb
Type : pdf


"The Fundamental Doctrine, The Cross of Christ" (Gospel Advocate, April 1981) highlights the death of Christ as essential for Christian faith and life.  "The Heart of the Good News" briefly emphasizes the crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus as what was integral to early Christian preaching and teaching.

The Heart of the Good News.pdf The Heart of the Good News.pdf
Size : 41.656 Kb
Type : pdf


"Sanctification and Fellowship in the New Testament" (written originally in the mid-1980s and revised July 2014) applies the biblical concept of growing in holiness or sanctification to New Testament occurrences of koinonia or fellowship.  It is argued that sanctification is a key to true Christian fellowship.


"Written Revelation and Inspiration" is a brief outline of scriptures with notes that highlight the need for written revelation and the inspiration of the Bible.

Written Revelation & Inspiration.pdf Written Revelation & Inspiration.pdf
Size : 50.283 Kb
Type : pdf


The "Old Rugged Cross" at the Rose Hill Memorial Gardens, located on Federal Highway 55 between Manchester and Tullahoma in Coffee County, Tennessee, is situated next to the "Garden of Gethsemane."




"Person of Christ in the Bible" is adapted from the outline for Dr. Jack Cottrell's "Person of Christ" Course at Cincinnati Bible Seminary (Cincinnati, OH; Spring 1979).  It provides an outline of scriptures, with minimal comments, from both Old and New Testaments that highlight the divine and human nature of Jesus theChrist.

Person of Christ in the Bible.pdf Person of Christ in the Bible.pdf
Size : 72.821 Kb
Type : pdf


"God Is Your Creator, So What?" looks at Paul's sermon to philosophers at Athens (Acts 17:24-31) in light of biblical teachings about God as creator.  Published in the Firm Foundation (January 1979) and revised in February 2011.

God Is Your Creator.pdf God Is Your Creator.pdf
Size : 57.172 Kb
Type : pdf


"The Goodness and Severity of God" develops and harmonizes seemingly opposite attributes of God, based on Paul's writing to the Romans (chapter 11).  Published in the Firm Foundartion (April 1979) and revised in February 2011. 

The Goodness and Severity of God.pdf The Goodness and Severity of God.pdf
Size : 62.981 Kb
Type : pdf


First written in November 1982 and revised in March 2011, "Is Modalism A Viable Trinitarian Concept" examines three basic fallacies of the modalistic view of the trinity.

Is Modalism A Viable Trinitarian Concept.pdf Is Modalism A Viable Trinitarian Concept.pdf
Size : 93.538 Kb
Type : pdf


"Some Thoughts About the Holy Spirit" (revised August 2021) is a collection of brief articles about the work of God's Spirit in the lives of believers.  "Holy Spirit Bibliography" (Summer 2022) is a brief annotated list of books about God's Holy Spirit.  "On Tongue Speaking" (January 2022) is a few reflections about this New Testament gift of the Holy Spirit.

Some Thoughts About the Holy Spirit.pdf Some Thoughts About the Holy Spirit.pdf
Size : 58.001 Kb
Type : pdf
Holy Spirit Bibliography.pdf Holy Spirit Bibliography.pdf
Size : 56.313 Kb
Type : pdf
On Tongue Speaking.pdf On Tongue Speaking.pdf
Size : 98.395 Kb
Type : pdf


Built in the 1960s, the Chapel in the Hills of Rapid City, South Dakota, is an excellent example of a traditional Scandanavian church and an exact reproduction of the Borgund Stavkirke in Laerdal, Norway.  Today, the church operates as a special ministry of the South Dakota Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA).  




"Increasing Ethical Awareness in the Local Church" (Summer 1981; revised Fall 2019) gives a basic statement for a biblical approach to ethical decision-making with a twenty-six lesson outline at the conclusion for church groups.

"Marriage, Adultery, and Sexual Purity in the Old Testament" was written in the mid-1970s, revised for the gathering mentioned below, and revised again in October 2019.  "The Meaning of Adultery in the New Testament" was discussed during a gathering of Church Of Christ preachers in Nashville, Tennessee, during the Fall of 1982 and revised October 2019.


The punishment stock at the Washington County Courthouse in Jonesborough, Tennessee, was used to restrain and to publicly and visibly humiliate offenders of civil law such as adulterers.  This stock has been removed and is no longer on display on the courthouse grounds.




"The Second Coming of Christ--Past or Future" examines the preterist view of Christ's second advent in light of the "ambiguity" in New Testament texts about the time of the Lord's return.  Published in the Gospel Advocate in August 1981, in La Vox Eterna in July-August 1982, and revised February 2011.

Second Coming of Christ--Past or Future.pdf Second Coming of Christ--Past or Future.pdf
Size : 48.855 Kb
Type : pdf


The Badlands National Park near Interior, South Dakota, showcases the rugged beauty of 244,000 acres of mixed-grass prairie and striking geologic formations as well as diverse flora and fauna.  This particular day in May 2016 was a cloudy one.  Clouds are associated in the New Testament with the return of Jesus (see Acts 1.9; 1 Thessalonians 4.17).




"An Analysis of the Theology of Modeling" appeared in Image Magazine as "Biblical Modeling" (August 1986) and develops a philosophy of church and ministry based on the sociological phenomena of identification, observation, and reduplication.  Revised February 2011.

An Analysis of the Theology of Modeling.pdf An Analysis of the Theology of Modeling.pdf
Size : 81.832 Kb
Type : pdf


"Church Growth Principles" and "Mobilizing the Church for Crisis Intervention" suggest ideas for outreach and growth.  Each includes an outline for lessons based on Paul's letter to Ephesians.  "Rethinking Congregational Autonomy" provides several representative quotes from notable Restoration Movement writers and a lengthy quote about congregational interdependency from John Murray, Professor of Systematic Theology, Westminster Theological Seminary (1937 to 1966).

Church Growth Principles.pdf Church Growth Principles.pdf
Size : 51.164 Kb
Type : pdf
Rethinking Congregational Autonomy.pdf Rethinking Congregational Autonomy.pdf
Size : 64.463 Kb
Type : pdf


"The Variety of Language in the Lord's Supper in the Eucharistiam Instituit (Matthew 26.26-29, Mark 14.22-25, Luke 22.15-20, and 1 Corinthians 11.23-26)" explores the language used in the New Testament about what commonly is called communion or the Lord's Supper.  It is argued that, contrary to traditional practice in many Churches of Christ, the New Testament traditions reflect a broader scope of ideas and wording about the Lord's Supper.

Language of the Lord's Supper.pdf Language of the Lord's Supper.pdf
Size : 190.512 Kb
Type : pdf


"Stewardship and the Meetinghouse" [Firm Foundation (January 1981); revised November 1982 & February 2011] explores both theological foundations and practical applications for efficient use of church facilities.  "Traditionalism and "Churches" (July 1983; revised August 2021) is a brief article and argues that the human tradition of building "churches" (i.e., physical structures to "worship" God) may risk neglect of more weightier matters and oblligatory commands of scripture.

Stewardship and the Meetinghouse.pdf Stewardship and the Meetinghouse.pdf
Size : 64.007 Kb
Type : pdf
Traditionalism and Churches.pdf Traditionalism and Churches.pdf
Size : 46.196 Kb
Type : pdf


"Hicks, Women Serving God" (September 2021) is a review of Women Serving God: My Journey in Understanding Their Story in the Bible (2020) by Dr. John Mark Hicks, Professor of Theology at Lipscomb University.  In this work, Hicks advocates for full participation of Christian women in the public realm of the assembled local church.

Hicks, Women Serving God.pdf Hicks, Women Serving God.pdf
Size : 46.334 Kb
Type : pdf


Two very different types of architecture are seen at the United Methodist Church of Summitville, Tennessee (above), and the Wood Avenue Church of Christ in Florence, Alabama (below).  Both facilities have a "sanctuary" for Christian worship and very little "flexible" or multipurpose space except in the annexes.




"Personal Reflections" (Fall 1985) was my attempt to argue for a Christian theistic worldview in a graduate course called "Perspectives On Religion" with Dr. Fred Clothey at the University of Pittsburgh.  I tried to outline and react to the broad field of religious studies or religionswissenschaft but probably not successfully.  I recall that in the course we tried for the first five weeks to define what we meant by "religion" but the seminar could come to no clear conclusion about that.  The short paper could also be considered as dealing with apologetics.

Personal Reflections on Religion.pdf Personal Reflections on Religion.pdf
Size : 75.831 Kb
Type : pdf


"Pain and Suffering: An Outline for Group Study" (Advent 2013) uses popular and more critical works to explore from a biblical perspective problems and plausible solutions to the classic and persistent challenge to theism - pain and suffering.


The Edwin G. Crouch Memorial Building at Cincinnati Christian University contains the library and graduate school facilities for the school.  Founded by independent Christian Churches and Churches of Christ in 1924 as Cincinnati Bible College and Seminary, the university is situated on Glenway Avenue in the Western Hills of the city.  The bronze plate on the building highlights in Greek the torchlight of scripture as "the light of the world."



"Origin and Development of the English Word Church" surveys the etymology and evolution of church from the Greek word kuriakon.


"Linguistic Mush and Semantic Squabbles" (Fall 2021) critiques use of "religion," "relationship," "worship," and "miracle" in light of New Testament equivalents and common understandings.

Linguistic Mush and Semantic Squabbles.pdf Linguistic Mush and Semantic Squabbles.pdf
Size : 132.545 Kb
Type : pdf


Coverdale, an English reformer of the sixteenth century, is credited for publication of the first complete English Bible (1535, likely in Antwerp, Belgium).  In this, he built on the New Testament translation (published 1525 in Cologne, Germany) of William Tyndale (1494-1536) who created many words still used today in English translations of the Bible.