EUROPEAN HISTORY



"Werner Sombart's "The Jews and Modern Capitalism: An Expanded Argumentum ad Populam" surveys the controversial German sociologist's work that responded to the classic treatise of his contemporary Max Weber, "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism."

 

Werner Sombart

(Copyright - Bibliotheque nationale de France)

 

 

 

"Types of Antisemitism" surveys religious, economic, cultural, racial, social, psychological, political, and Manichaean "types" of antisemitism according to characteristics, charges associated with, and reasons for or rationales.

Types of Antisemitism Outline.pdf Types of Antisemitism Outline.pdf
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"Jewish Experience of Russian Pogroms in the Early Twentieth Century" focuses on the 1903-1906 and 1917-1921 persecutions of Jews in Russia to illustrate three themes of Jewish history--blaming, purging, and refinement.

Map, The Pale of Jewish Settlement, from Raymond P. Scheindlin, A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood (Oxford University Press, 1998), 177.

 

Postcard, 1905 Edessa Pogrom (Source - www.jewishsphere.com)

 

 

 

An abbreviated version of "The Great War and English and German Society, 1914 - 1929" was presented at the University of Arkansas (Fayetteville) during the 24th Annual Mid-America Conference on History in September 2002.  "The Impact of the Great War on Germany" and "The Great War, A Watershed in Modern German History" were written in Fall 2005 and revised subsequently for publication online.

Impact of the Great War on Germany.pdf Impact of the Great War on Germany.pdf
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German Soldier and Hounds with Gas Masks, World War I

(Copyright - London Media News; Source - War History Online)

 

 Vickers Machine Gun Crew with Gas Masks, World War I (Copyright Unknown)

 

 

 

"War and Holocaust" (November 2005) is a brief historiographical essay about works on the Holocaust that show the Third Reich's use of war as an instrument for genocide.

War and Holocaust.pdf War and Holocaust.pdf
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Since 2001 at the Whitwell Middle School in Marion County, a Children's Holocaust Memorial displays a 1917 rail car used by the Nazis during World War II to transport prisoners to concentration camps.  Discovered after the war in Poland near the town of Sobibor, it was used as a grain car, abandoned, placed in a railroad museum in Robel, Germany, and then purchased by Peter Schroeder and Dagmar Schroeder Hildebrand, reporters on the White House for German newspapers, for donation to Whitwell Middle School.  One of the last "cattle cars" of the Nazi era, the memorial houses eleven million paper clips in both the car and the monument (to represent victims of the Holocaust), various artifacts from the war, letters and documents, and copper butterflies to honor the children of Terezin and to symbolize new life.

 

Auschwitz, from Barbara Distel and Ruth Jakusch, eds., Concentration Camp Dachau 1933 - 1945, trans. by Jennifer Vernon (13th ed.; Munich, Germany: Comite International de Dachau, 1978), 181.

 

 

 

In "The Nuremberg Trial of Grossadmiral Karl Doenitz and the RMS Laconia Affair" (2002), I examine the evidence presented pro and con for the charges against Doenitz--conspiracy, crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity.  Appended also are brief overviews of Doenitz's judgment and sentence and his psychology or state of mind at the time of the trials.

Doenitz on Trial at Nuremberg, from Whitney R. Harris, Tyranny on Trial: The Trial of the Major German War Criminals at the End of World War II at Nuremberg, Germany, 1945-1946 (Rev. ed.; Dallas, TX: Southern Methodist University Press, 1999), photos insert.

 

Speer, Doenitz, and Jodl (See Inset) Arrested at the Flensburg-Muerwik Police Station, from Peter Padfield, Doenitz: The Last Fuehrer (London, England: Cassell & Co., 2001), photos insert.